ExceptionHandler Ruby on Rails Gem

ExceptionHandler is an “error pages” gem for Ruby on Rails.

Currently at version, the gem has been downloaded over 170,000 times and is widely regarded as the “best” dynamic error pages gem for the framework. It works extremely well.

The most important thing to realize about ExceptionHandler is that it’s basically designed to provide a “translation” system for Rails errors, converting them into the appropriate HTTP error that a web browser can read.

You see, whilst Rails may raise exceptions from within its core, these errors are not what you see in your browser. You see the http error that the framework delivers to the web server. This http error is accompanied by an “HTTP Message Body” which is what the browser displays on the page.

In other words, when dealing with Rails errors – if you want to actually show “branded” error pages (with your own layout or another one) – you have to “hack” Rails to deliver those specific pages when errors occur. The pages that are shown have NO bearing on what the user sees in their web browser; they’re simply there to provide a “branded” way for them to engage with it.

Whenever Rails raises an exception inside its application – that error (it could be anything such as a database problem or something) is only valid for the Rails application. What Rails does is “translate” that error into one of two types of HTTP error (which a browser can read): 4xx (client error) or 5xx (server error).

Every time you use a “web” application, your computer is sending a request for data on port 80 of a publicly accessible IP address. If the other computer (server) has a “web server” application running on port 80, it will accept the request and respond with HTTP based data (which will typically include HTML code).

The entire “web” is a public directory for the “Internet”, meaning that if you the IP (or equivalent domain name) for a connected computer, you should be able to access it via the “HTTP” (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol). This HTTP protocol is the core of how the “web” works, and why most people get confused when dealing with “errors” in their Rails based applications.

HTTP “errors” are not really errors at all but erroneous responses. Each “error” you see is still an HTML page, displayed with a corresponding HTTP status code.

Since HTTP is a “stateless” protocol, it has to work with what’s known as a “request/response” pattern – essentially meaning that every single time you send a new request to a web service, that request is treated as entirely new.

This is opposed to “stateful” processes, which “retain state” between requests; in the sense of native applications or similar. The point is that what you see with HTTP errors is a response to an erroneous request. They’re really just status codes which explain that.

To do this properly, you have to be able to “translate” Rails-based errors into the appropriate HTTP error response. This is done by the ActionDispatch::ShowExceptions middleware – which calls a middleware “hook” (“exceptions_app”) to determine which “HTML” response to show in the body of the erroneous message.

It uses the “rescue_responses” hash to determine which HTTP error code to match any Rails exceptions to. This hash can be extended within Rails, allowing users to map different Rails-based “exceptions” to the appropriate HTTP response code.

Say your application raises an error with ActiveRecord.

If it cannot find a particular item in the database – Rails will raise the ActiveRecord::NotFound exception class. This is not an HTTP-compatible error; it’s simply a “Rails” exception. The key is that it has to be “translated” into an error that HTTP-based browsers can understand. This is where ActionDispatch::ShowExceptions comes in.

ShowExceptions essentially takes the exception object – passes it through the “rescue_responses” hash (to get an appropriate HTTP status code) and – crucially – invokes the “exceptions_app” middleware hook to generate the “HTTP message body” for the response…

wrapper = ExceptionWrapper.new(backtrace_cleaner, exception)

status = wrapper.status_code

request.set_header “action_dispatch.exception”, wrapper.exception

request.set_header “action_dispatch.original_path”, request.path_info

request.path_info = “/#{status}”

response = @exceptions_app.call(request.env)

The key thing to realize here is that @exceptions_app is what ExceptionHandler has been built to manage.

Every time Rails raises an exception, the HTTP protocol still remains no matter what. In other words, you’re always going to require sending an HTTP status code and message body to the requesting web browser… the difference lies in what you send.

The problem for Rails is that @exceptions_app defaults to the “routes” – which means that it will load 404.HTML or 500.HTML from the /public directory of your application. Whilst this works, the pages are unprofessional and static.

To change the pages, ExceptionHandler overrides the “@exceptions_app” hook with its own controller and views. This means that you’re basically able to invoke “dynamic” web pages with Rails.

The way ExceptionHandler works is to use the application’s “default” layout (typically “application”) for 4xx errors, and include a completely custom “exception” layout for 5xx errors. The custom layout is generally recommended as 5xx errors denote server issues, which means that if you’re using a layout that references the database (as most “application” layouts do), it could cause an infinite loop to occur.

This means that if you have an error – say ActiveRecord cannot load a record from the database – Rails will still invoke ActiveDispatch::ShowExceptions.

However, due to ExceptionHandler overriding the “exceptions_app” hook, rather than the static 404.HTML / 500.HTML pages being called, the controller and views pipeline provided by the gem are invoked instead.

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Android Application Development: A Beginner’s Guide

So, your mind is embedded with creativity to build a thirst quenching app for the users. Some great pictures coming in your mind where you can see unsurpassed downloads? Where are you stuck? Is it in learning to code a successful Android Application?

Learning is a never-ending process and if you have that hunger in you, no task is unreachable. Android Application Development can be a daunting task, especially if you are a beginner. Lots of in-depth knowledge is required to start on with the development process. Some of the terms which you might not be even familiar with pops up but special thanks to Google, which makes our task way easier. Take a deep sigh of relief and fasten your seatbelt for a big and a bumpy coding ahead.

Step 1: Selection of Operating System

An Operating System is the most important software that runs on a computer. It is a medium of communication between the programmer and the computer itself. Proper selection of OS (Operating System) depends upon the scope of your project. There is three major OS ruling the Internet world- Linux, Windows, and Mac.

Linux is the preferred OS by most of the developers, but if you are new to it, go for Windows Operating System. Once the selection has been done, you can go on to the next step of installation of the Android Studio.

Step 2: Downloading and Installing Android Studio

Android Studio is the most used ‘Integrated Development Environment’ owned by Google. IDE is a platform where you can see the codes that you write and view the results there itself. After downloading the Android Studio, you can just finish off the installation process to see a screen where you can run your codes.

A common editor can also be used to run the codes, but why to ignore the specialty of this IDE? It is specifically designed to code and Android Application.

Step 3: Downloading the Java Development Kit (JDK)

After the Android Studio has been downloaded, the next important software is the JDK. The programming language which will be used to develop the Android app will be JAVA. Therefore, to use the Android Studio, JDK needs to be installed which can be downloaded here. Follow the instructions carefully to install. Once it has been done, your Android Studio is ready to be launched.

Another deciding factor is the UI in which you want to see the output of your code. There are two options open for you- Emulator or the Real Time Device.

An Android Emulator is an Android Virtual Device which will look exactly the same as your Android device and can be used to run and test your code. If you have opted to test your code on a Real-Time Device, the Driver supporting it needs to be installed again.

Step 4: Starting your First Project

You are all set to start your new Android Studio Project. Enter the name of the project you are all the way waiting for and after successful completion, you can upload it to Google Play Store.

Naming your project should be smart enough because this will be the file which all the users will be seeing. While thinking about the application, you might have decided the platform on which it shall run, meaning; Phone or Tablet.

Step 5: The Starting Page for the Final Project

Once the app you are making, opens, you can see a message saying- “Hello World”. This is the smallest program which all the developers make while learning a new technology. From this, you can start coding your desired project in mind. It can be a Job Listing App or a Cab Booking app or maybe a Book Store even.

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How To Grow Business With A Mobile Application

Without an effective mobile application, your business will go nowhere. A mobile application is your e-store with which consumers will interact with you and buy your services or products. You have to ensure that consumers get the best way to satisfy their needs. Having a properly designed mobile application enhances the chances of business opportunities. You can also represent your products in a better way to your users. The need for a mobile application in business is no longer a point of discussion because companies have already adopted the concept. But the concern among people is how to use an application in the best way to draw more profits.

Mobile app development is growing faster. New approaches are introduced, and new options make your business plan even more effective. To get the most of the benefit of an application, you must have a creative marketing team that understands your business. You need to select your platform and design your business applications. Android and iOS app developers are enjoying a great demand because these two platforms have an excessive reach to the audience. Companies concentrating on global business must hire iOS app designers as people in abroad use iOS more than other names. Besides this, it has a higher conversion rate.

How a mobile application helps you grow in the business:

There are a few tactics that companies are employing in order to increase the download rate of applications. Once it reaches consumers pools, your business will start growing automatically.

Introduce discounts and coupons for your app:

You may have witnessed the fact that companies are offering better discounts on a purchase made from an application. This is a strategy to increase the reach of an application that also benefits consumers. Introduce offers and cut-down prices for your app and drive more traffic to your business.

You have to establish a direct communication to consumers and send them gift vouchers on their purchase. Your marketing team will decide when to start an offer to engage more consumers with the plan. Giant e-commerce companies mainly choose the weekend to offer magnificent deals on collections.

Use the device information:

Native mobile applications use a device’s hardware and software to offer better navigation to users. A mobile app can access a device’s GPS and other sensors for their performance. You can use device’s information for offering personalized services to your consumers. This will increase your brand values and brand loyalty. You will a better customer service that helps you grow your business.

Mobile applications to help users:

Do you know why more and more companies are becoming mobile-friendly? This is because applications ease the product purchase. They are moving shops that help buyers browse the collections and order products without wasting time to a store visit. People can use your application anytime they want. So, make it effective and interesting to grab your user’s attention.

Mobile application for offering consumer-friendly services:

With your app, you can categorize your services as per the need of your users. There are many companies offering laundry and other facilities which you do not use regularly. If your business shares the same field, you can segment your services for weekly or monthly basis. You can also offer discounts as per the product weight and number. In this case, you have to clear pick-up area option. Consumers will trust your company since you offering a transparent business.

Come up with a unique idea for your business and design application that cater the right thought to your consumer network. Hire an Android or iOS app developer and have your application designed rightly.

Strengthen your brand image:

A mobile application makes your business strong by offering you immense opportunities. It will present your products in an interesting manner and helps visitors guide you properly.

Having a mobile application keeps you ahead of others in terms of getting traffic and conversions. Design a great application that promotes your products in a creative and attractive way. If you really want to achieve a lot in the business, you must design your page in a mobile-friendly way. Not many people will get you through an app, but they search you over the internet and access your pages. So, make sure that web page is mobile friendly. A mobile application boosts your business approaches. Develop a great application that helps you grow online.

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Brief Discussion on the Fundamentals of Digital Marketing

With the introduction of computers and the internet, companies prefer to do sales and marketing in a non-traditional way. Instead of relying on door-to-door sales and marketing, modern businesses prefer to maintain corporate portals where they highlight the products or services meant for marketing and sales. Modern business houses prefer digital marketing to sell products or services as this method of sales and marketing is considered effective yet less laborious. This blog highlights the fundamentals of digital marketing. It also discusses SEO and its role in web marketing.

Digital Marketing and Search Engine Optimisation

SEO is also known as search engine optimization and it is very important as far as web marketing is concerned. Companies hire the expertise of professional web marketers to sell their products and services. The expert digital marketer uses their skills, strategies to market, and sells products or services. The professionals in the field of digital marketing use SEO to enhance the visibility of client resources like websites, webpages. More visibility of client online resources implies that the business seeking SEO services attracts more web traffic, hence there exist greater chances of lead generation, conversion of leads to sales. If a business manages to convert leads to sales then it implies that it generates business profits.

Benefits of SEO

Following are the benefits of using SEO as part of web-marketing:-

SEO helps a business to enhance its ranking in the various search engine research pages
It helps to attract more and more quality online traffic
It helps to generate leads
Convert leads to sales
SEO contributes to business profitability
Search engine optimization also contributes to branding

Types of SEO

SEO or search engine optimization is of two types and they are as follows:-

On-Page SEO
Off-Page SEO

What is On-Page SEO?

At first, it is important to say that when web marketers do SEO then they deal with client websites or other web resources. On-page SEO is the type of SEO that is done on the website of the client. It deals with keyword research and analysis. In On-page SEO, digital marketing experts require to have skills in writing and posting content for the client website. Such contents include the Title, meta description, body of the content. On-page SEO is associated with using keywords in the website contents. The expert search engine optimizer should make sure that the keywords are well-researched, they are not that competitive but have high online search values. Moreover, the keywords that need to be used in the content should be relevant. For keywords it is important to mention that there are broadly two types of keywords 1) Short-tail keywords 2) Long-tail keywords. Short-tail keywords are more competitive than long-tail keywords and hence the chances of converting leads to sales are low with short-tail keywords. It is always advised to use long-tail keywords in website content while doing on-page SEO. Besides, on-page digital marketing also involves search engine indexing so that a website or a link has higher visibility in the search engine results pages.

Off-page SEO

Off-page SEO also deals with search engine optimization activities that are outside a website. Off-page search engine optimization deals with link-building. Proper link-building of a website can enhance the DA (Domain Authority), PA (Page Authority), PR (Page Rank) of the website. It implies greater exposure of the client business, more lead-generations, and conversions. For more information on Off-page web marketing visit relevant websites available online.

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Understanding The Significance of Content Writing in SEO

SEO or search engine optimization is very important for the growth of a business. Web marketers or SEO specialists who are responsible for doing the search engine optimization of client websites require adopting SEO strategies to enhance the visibility of the website in the various search engine results pages. The website visibility depends on how well the SEO expert conducts on-page as well as off-page optimization of the client website. In the context of on-page or off-page search engine optimization, it is important to understand that the emphasis is always on the website contents. It is important that the content for on-page as well as off-page search engine optimization is well written with proper distribution of keywords, anchor text. The objective is to attract more and more web traffic to a business. From this angle the significance of content writing and content writers is high when it comes to search engine optimization.

Tips on Writing SEO Contents

This blog discusses how you should write content while doing on-page or off-page SEO activities.

On-Page Content Writing

if you are focussing on on-page activities then you know that you have to write high-quality content for your website pages. The objective is to attract more and more traffic to your business. Understand that greater traffic implies higher lead-generation and subsequently greater conversion of leads to sales. While writing on-page content like the content for a website’s about-us page, you require to be very specific about your business, you require to highlight your business objective. While writing the content you can use anchor text as and where required. The links that you use need to be relevant. There should not be an overuse of keywords. The keyword distribution should not exceed 1%-3% in the entire content. If you follow these rules then you discover that your website content is presentable and attracts more and more online traffic.

Off-page Content Writing

Off-page search engine optimization means link building. Link building in SEO is very important as it helps to enhance the page rank of a website, it helps to enhance the DA or domain authority value, the PA or page authority value of a website. During the process of link building, the web marketers require to post content along with relevant links in a number of blog sites, article sites, forum sites, question answers site, press release sites. To create the content the web marketers require the participation of content writers. To do off-page content writing the web marketers require to follow some rules. They require to write content on the topic, include keywords that are relevant to the topic. The content writers require to use anchor texts linking relevant websites or web resources. In this context, it is relevant to add that the content writers can do keyword research to find out the keywords to be used for the content, or else the list of keywords will be furnished by the client. There should not be an overuse of the keywords. The entire content should have a keyword density in the range of 1% to 3% only.

This blog highlights the fact that content writing is immensely important for both on-page as well as off-page SEO. Therefore, the next time you wish to do SEO of your client’s website then be sure to hire the quality services of a professional content writer.

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Strengthening and Enforcing Our Profession

In order to be an effective project manager (PM), we should look at our definition of project management. Definitions surprisingly vary greatly by organization and individual. We should be careful about calling something project management that really is not. Doing so often confuses the profession. Call it what it is. If a position is more administrative, add this label. If a position is more holistic with overall responsibility and leadership for the success of the project, I’d be more inclined to call it project management. Well defined roles are not only essential for the organization and individual, but for the profession at large.

If someone is used to providing project leadership and overall project responsibility under a PM title, certain expectations are set. If the next opportunity doesn’t provide the same opportunities and expectations both the organization and individual may experience issues. Likewise if someone is in a lower level position where they simply schedule meetings and follow-up on action items, this individual may develop an inappropriate perception of project management. Remember, a true PM is responsible for all aspects of the project, including management of scope, time, cost, quality, procurement, human resources, communication, risk management, stakeholder management, and integration. I’d even take this list a step further and involve the PM in scope discussions during business development. It’s never too early to involve the person responsible for high stakes efforts.

Other pet peeves of mine are a lack of analysis and a lack of communication skills. Project management isn’t about producing reports or documents, but managing to ensure project success. Project data is necessary to ensure success, but without analysis and interpretation it is strictly administrative data. I’m also often amazed at the lack of communication in project management. Strong PMs spend eighty to ninety percent of their time communicating. This doesn’t mean just forwarding emails, but providing impact analysis and recommendations. And my final pet peeve (for this posting!) centers on improperly handling situations by escalating all items or informing all parties of all developments. This goes along with communication. Determine your stakeholders and how you will interact with those stakeholders. It may be easier to copy everyone involved, but it’s not about what is easy.

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Ways to Create a Powerful Website Design

For businesses to grow and be successful they need a website since this is among the most effective tools to realize their goal. This is also the way to draw potential customers to the products and/or services they offer. In addition, this has a wider reach compared to other marketing methods without their high startup costs. Businesses can consider the following tips to create a powerful web design.

Take Advantage of Visual Hierarchy

The term visual hierarchy refers to the arrangement of website elements like the color, font size, white space and position to put emphasis on the primary point for every page. In order to complement a call to action (CTA), it is important to direct the eyes of visitors to something they want done by means of these visual factors.

To highlight their landing page’s central theme, they can do the following:

Make the font size larger.
Place the text at the top part of the window.
Choose a contrasting color since this stands out from the rest of the page.
Include a captivating graphic or video making use of the latest innovative web design trends.
Use white space so it will stick out from other text.

Use Minimalism

Businesses should use and integrate the above mentioned elements on the website but they have to keep in mind that this should be done in moderation. If this is overdone, this will cause cluttering, which will make customers confused or even worse, discouraged.

Also, they should not let visitors complete many tasks. They should minimize form fields as well as menu items and only focus on one CTA that has one goal per page.

According to a Google study, users do not like visual complexity. There are ways to simplify a site such as:

Eliminate the Sidebar – rather than have readers click on information on the sidebar, the process can be made easier by taking away this element and just create a very long page. In this way, they will be able to scroll through the content and scan everything, raising the possibility that the message of the brand will be conveyed.

Go for Familiar Layouts – while they may think that an unusual site design will set their domain apart from the rest of the competition, visitors are actually attracted to simple layouts with easy to understand icons and effects. Also, using a regular web structure can improve navigation on their site.

Prioritize Readability

Businesses should consider readability to make it easy for users to recognize and comprehend the text on their site. Prioritizing this factor will make sure that users will not have a difficult time in scanning their site and will remember the information they want to be retained. They should use the most ideal typeface, font size and contrasting colors for their brand.


Websites are important since these provide prospects with information on the business, which includes the office address, email address and phone numbers.

In addition, websites enable businesses to build and establish credibility in their niche of choice by being a source they can trust and rely on. The best SEO strategies and relevant content will help establish their authority in their industry making use of their domain and most especially, a powerful website.

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Data Science And The Advantages It Offers

Data Science has turned out to be a progressive technological field that everybody seems to talk about these days. In fact, it is considered the ‘most appealing job of the 21st century’. Let’s find out more about it.

Data Science is a buzzword and not a lot of people understand it. While many human beings desire to emerge as data scientists, it is indispensable to check out the advantages of this field. Let’s check out some of the advantages.

1. It’s in high Demand

Data Science is in high demand. Prospective job seekers have several opportunities to avail of. It is the quickest developing field of job on LinkedIn and is envisioned to create 11.5 million jobs by the end of 2026. This makes Data Science a pretty employable job sector.

2. Abundance of Positions:

There are very few human beings who have the required skill-set to become a good data scientist. Therefore, this field of job is less saturated than other IT sectors. Therefore, this offers a lot of opportunities. The subject is high in demand but there are not many professionals out there who can meet the demand.

3. A Highly Paid Career option

Science has created a lot of highly paid jobs. According to Glassdoor, Data Scientists make more than of $116,100 per year. This makes data science one of the best moneymaking professions out there.

4. Versatile

There are several purposes of data science. For instance, It is extensively used in health-care, banking, consultancy services, and e-commerce industries. So, this field is a very versatile. Therefore, you will have the chance to work in a number of fields.

5. Data analysis

Data analysis companies require experts to analyze their data. They not only analyze the data but also enhance the quality of it. Therefore, this offers a lot of benefits for companies that are looking for an ideal way of getting their data analyzed.

6. Data Scientists are Highly Prestigious

Data Scientists allow different types of groups to make smarter business decisions. Companies rely on these professionals and use their understanding to grant much better services for their clients. So, these people play one of the most important roles in the company.

7. No More Boring Tasks

This has helped a number of industries to automate different types of redundant tasks. Companies make use of historic information in order to train machines to perform repetitive tasks. This has simplified a lot of hard jobs undertaken by real people before.

8. Data Science Makes Products Smarter

This field involves the use of Machine Learning that has enabled industries to create higher quality merchandise that are customized for each consumer.

For example, Recommendation Systems use on e-commerce web sites provide customized insights into the likes and dislikes of customers primarily based on their historic purchases. This has enabled computer systems to apprehend human-behavior and make data-driven decisions.

9. It can Save Lives

The Healthcare sector has been substantially uplifted due to of the advent of data science. With the introduction of computer learning, it has been made much easier to become aware of early-stage tumors. Also, many different health-care industries use these systems in order to assist their clients.

10. Data Science Can Make You A Better Person

This will not just provide you with a good profession but will also help you develop your personality. You will be able to enjoy a problem-solving attitude. Since many of these roles bridge IT and Management together, you will be capable to get the most of both the worlds.

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